Russian hackers have been blamed for hacking the US Democratic National Committee and the German parliament
Russia has been accused of trying to interfere in the US presidential election, through hacked Democrat emails and social media.
And in a big year of European elections, political leaders in France, Germany and elsewhere are looking over their shoulders too.
Across the continent the hand of the Russian state has been perceived in an array of cyber attacks on government and state institutions, in the phenomenon of “fake news” and disinformation, and in the targeted funding of opposition groups.
So how real is the threat and what form does it take? And is an explanation to be found in the words of Russia’s chief of the general staff, Gen Valery Gerasimov, who wrote in a military newspaper in 2013 that “the very rules of war…
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