• Title: The Order of Things
  • Author: Michel Foucault
  • Published: 1966
  • Publisher: Routledge (1989)
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-415-26737-3

The book is about the episteme of the classical era (17th and 18th centuries) compared with that of 16th century. In the 16th century, similitudes (resemblances) are the key to the knowledge. Foucault wants to show how differences and identities became more important in the classical period. To determine differences and provide identities, it is required to have methods that analyze objects; measurements and the order.

(1) Four Similitudes

  • Convenientia (convene, group, proximity)
  • Aemulatio (emulation, imitation, rival)
  • Analogy
  • Sympathy & Antipathy

(2) Representation and Sign

The sign or symbol of the 16th century stood in itself. It is more than representation and has hidden marks to be discovered. In classical era, signs represent. But the meaning of the representation is little bit different from what we think now. Signs represent within themselves. It is a double…

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